The simplest form of soil excavation — hand mining — is constructing a tunnel in reasonably stable ground conditions. The tunnel must be large enough for personnel entry, and the tunnel face is manually excavated with handheld tools. With this method, we can manually remove obstructions from the tunnel face.
A protective shield is usually required, which may have a forward projecting bib to provide additional face stability during soil excavation. Different types of shields may be necessary as well, including an articulated shield or a fixed shield, depending on the project.
The hand mining method’s advantages are its simple operation and how well it handles varying and challenging soil conditions. This method also requires minimal workspace and can be used to install linings as small as 42 inches in diameter.
Benefits of Hand Mining:
Can work through obstructions with relative ease
Works in all sorts of ground conditions
Simple operation with limited mechanical means to break down
Minimal work area
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